Armenian myths and folklore praise the unrivaled courage, strength, beauty, wisdom, candor, loyalty and noble character of the Gampr. Such high esteem secured the Gampr a place in the pantheon of Armenian deities: Aralez, the canine deity, tended to the wounds of warriors in the battlefield by licking them and brought them back to life – a truly canine behaviour… The Gampr enjoys a well-deserved and important role in the history and culture of Armenians.
Armenian Fairy Tale
A man and his wife had a boy and a girl: the boy has come of age, and the girl was still in a cradle. When the girl was only five months of age, strange things started happening in their house: when there was nobody home except the baby girl, they saw that many things were disappearing. There was no milk and matzoun (Armenian yougurt) in the pots, no bread left in the trough, and no oil in the jug, and many other things were not there. They thought that may be a burglar broke into the house, but the boy thought otherwise and kept it to himself.
Once when there was nobody home, the boy hid in a dark corner and what did he see? His baby sister got up, gulped up the food left at her side, rushed to the trough, saw that there was no bread in it but only the dough, fell upon it and wiped it up clean; then she rushed hither and thither, sniffed around, saw that there was nothing else to eat, quietly returned to her place and lied down as if she was an innocent child.
Mother went out to heat the tonir; when she returned to take the dough she saw that it was not there. The boy stepped out from his shelter, took his mother out, and told her what he saw with his own eyes.
The boy said, “You know better, you and your daughter. Do as you choose, but I cannot stay in this house any more. When she grows up, she will devour us all. She is a daemon, a dragon, and not a girl.”
Having said that, the boy left the house. He walked away a little bit, and sat down on the side of the road. He was hungry and had nothing to eat, but three dry apricots in his pocket, so he took them out and ate them and buried the stones in the ground. From these stones, there grew three apricot trees.
The name of the boy was Tatough. Tatough went to the wastelands to find a new world, but found no city and no village. Instead, he saw flock of sheep grazing in a meadow, and walked towards it. And he saw that there was no shepherd with the sheep. In the dusk, when the flock of sheep headed for their enclosure, Tatough went with them. When the sheep reached the enclosure, a man and a woman, both of them blind, came out of a cavern, milked their sheep by touch, took their daily share in a jug, crumbled some bread into it and started eating. Tatough cautiously approached the jug and started eating from it next to them. The blind did not know that they had a new companion, and although they were not fools, they did not say anything. And so it went on. And one day, the man said to his wife:
– Lo, woman, for several days, I remain hungry, the milk is the same as always, but I am not full any more.
And the woman said:
– Lo, man, I thought that you eat more than always, and that is why I stay hungry. Then both of us stay hungry. Can it so happen that there is someone else joining us for dinner?
– It is likely to be so. And there is something else I have noticed. So far, we herded the sheep home, but now they come by themselves. Perhaps, someone is herding them. You know what? When we sit down to dinner, I will cough and you immediately stretch your hand and I will do the same from the opposite side, and if there is someone sitting between us, we will see who it is.
At dinner in the evening the man and his wife got hold of our Tatough.
“Who are you?” they asked, “and why do you conceal yourself from us?”
Tatough said, “I am an alien who came to your place. Be my father and mother, and I will be your son, and I will herd your sheep and take care of you.”
“Very well,” they said, “It seems that the God has sent you to us. We did not have a child, so be our son.”
Next day, the father summoned Tatough and told him.
– Lo, son, when you take the sheep to grease, take them neither to the left and nor to the right, but take them just straight to the facing hill.
– Very well, said Tatough, but he did not take his father’s word. On the second day, he took the sheep to the leftside hill and saw a demons’ wedding. All fiends got together and were making a wedding with zurna and dhol. As they saw Tatough, they seized him and dragged him to their feast. They said, “You see, we are busy making a wedding, so you have to chop some wood for us.”
Tatough acceded and taking an axe started chopping a huge log. And as soon as he cracked the log by driving several wedges into it, he called all the fiends, “Come along, hurry up, I will show you a trick to make your wedding merrier.” All the fiends rushed forward, including the groom and the bride. “Come on, show us your trick!”
Tatough said, “Put your hands in this crack, and then I will show it to you.”
The fiends hurried to put their hands in the crack so that they could see the trick.
Tatough quickly removed the wedges and all fields started shrieking plaintively.
– Ooh, ooh, we are ruined, what has this man done? What kind of joke was it?
Tatough said, “This is just the beginning, wait until the joke starts.” “Tell me, was it you who took away my father’s and mother’s eyes, and where do you keep them?.. Until you give me their eyes back, you will not be saved.”
– Yes, yes, ouch, ouch, one fiend said, whose heart was breaking most with pain… “Here they are, under this bush, go take them and let us free.”
Tatough went and took the eyes and came back and asked them.
– I found them, but how should I put them back?
– Put the eyes in their eye-sockets and wipe them over with our bride’s veil, they will heal right away.
Tatough went and took the bride’s veil.
– And now set us free, whined the fiends.
– I could have, but who can tell that you will not take revenge and tear me to pieces? No, do not have vain hopes, there is no salvation for you, so mourn your doom.
The fiends’ wedding turned into mourning. Pleading and whining had no effect on Tatough, and what a fool he would have been if he set them free. Axe in his hands, our Tatough chopped away all their heads and cleaned the hill from the evil fiends.
In the evening, when he came home, he put the eyes of his parents in their eye-sockets, wiped them with the veil of the fiend bride, and they were immediately cured. They embraced Tatough and kissing him, did not know how to express their gratitude and their unbounded joy.
Inspired with this event, next day Tatough took the sheep to the rightside hill. As soon as he reached the top, he heard a loud howl. The sheep also heard it and retreated shivering. Tatough did not stop them, but decided to see what was the beast that was making the howl.
He followed the sound until he reached a cave where a strange beast sat howling. A lion, it was not a lion, if a tiger, it was not a tiger, if a boar, it was not a boar, but an awesome beast that looked more like a dog, but a tenfold size of it.
While Tatough, concealed behind a rock, was watching the beast, it had already noticed him.
– Lo, man, called the beast in a human voice, “I am about to bear and cannot move, come and help me and do not have fear, I will not hurt you.”
When the beast spoke in human voice, Tatough rejoiced and thought to himself, “That who speaks in human voice will have human kindness, so let me go and help her.” As soon as Tatough approached the beast, she said, “If I give birth to an even litter, I will devour you, and if to an odd litter, I will let you live.”
– You know better, said Tatough, “whatever will be, will be.”
The first cub that was born to the beast Tatough put in his shepherd sack, the same he did with the second one, and as the third came out, he saw that there were no more, and put it in front of the beast and said.
– Only this one was born, and was it worth so much groaning?
The beast was ashamed of its savageness. “Go,” she said. “I give you your life, and if you happen to bring your flock this way, you should not beware of me, I will do you no harm.”
Tatough took the newborn cubs whose eyes were still closed, and fed them with the sheep’s milk. The cubs grew up and became his most devoted dogs.
Tatough called one dog Zangi, and the other one – Zrangi. When he went somewhere, he took them with him, and when at home, he kept them on the leash.
Ten years passed or less, God knows. Tatough decided to go to his birthplace to see how his parents were doing. He told his mother and father about this decision of his, and they acceded hoping that he would be back soon. Tatough poured some milk in a plate, put it on the shelf and told his father and mother:
– Watch this milk; when you see that it changed the color and turned red or black, it means that I am in dire straits. Unleash Zangi and Zrangi so that they come and rescue me.
Tatough went and reached the three apricot trees that grew and became rather BIG trees. He sat down to rest a little bit, and then went to his birthplace.
What birthplace?.. There was no living soul, the village was straight, but there were no dwellers there. He aimed the horse straight to his house and saw his sister sitting at the hearth, and there was no one else. The sister stood up, embraced him and said:
– Welcome home, my brother, the sunshine of my eyes, where have you been, why were you so late to come back? This is what the sister said and hurried out of the house.
She saw the horse hitched, the sack on its back. She gulped up the sack, returned home and asked her brother:
– Dear brother, my soul, you came without a sack?
– Yes, answered Tatough and immediately understood that she gulped the sack.
The sister went out again, and ate one leg of the horse and came back asking:
– Dear brother, my soul, your horse came with three legs?
– Yes, answered Tatough.
The sister went out and ate away the second leg of the hose and came back asking:
– Dear brother, my soul, your horse came with two legs?…
– Yes, answered Tatough.
The sister hurried out again and ate away the third leg of the horse, came back and asked:
– Dear brother, your horse came with one leg?
– Yes, answered Tatough, whose heart started trembling: “After she devours the horse, she will eat me. What should I do, how should I escape?” he thought.
The sister went out for the fourth time, ate away the fourth leg of the horse and coming back asked:
– Dear brother, you came on foot?
– Yes, dear sister, I came on foot, and I will go on foot, but will you let me to?
– Oh, I would be blind, how can I let you go, I have gazed at the road waiting so long for you to come back and fill my heart with joy. You should be hungry, let me go and bring some bread for you to eat.
As soon as the sister went out, a cock came out from the corner of the house and said to Tatough:
– Lo, lad, your sister went to sharpen her teeth to come and eat you, you have to save your soul.
– How am I going to save my soul, I don’t know, said the lad.
The cock said, “Take your robe off, fill it with ashes and hang it beneath the ceiling, and you run away. She will come, rush to your robe, and her eyes will fill with ashes. While she cleans up her eyes, you will be gone far away.”
The lad followed the cock’s advice and escaped.
Tatough was already far away when he realised that the sister was catching up at him, and he hastened and reached the three apricot trees and climbed one of them.
The sister caught up, tried to climb the tree but could not. She started gnawing at the tree and gnawed so much that cut it clean. The cut tree fell on the second one, and the lad jumped to the top of that tree. The girl started gnawing at the second tree. She cut this one as well. Then she rushed to the third tree and started gnawing at it.
At this moment, Tatough’s father and mother looked at the milk that he had left and saw that it turned red. They immediately unleashed Zangi-Zrangi. The devoted beasts immediately took their master’s trail, followed his path and in huge leaps in a flash reached the spot where he was. The last tree was about to fall when they came. Tatough saw them and called them:
– Zangi-Zrangi, come on, eat her up so that just one drip of blood is left of her.
They devoured the girl so that just one drip of blood fell on a leaf.
As the lad descended from the tree, Zangi-Zrangi curled at his feet and whined to express their joy about deliverance of their master. Tatough patted their heads and expressed his gratefulness. Then he took the bloodstained leaf, put it in his bosom and set off.
They walked far and wide, and came across a caravan.
When the master of the caravan saw Tatough’s dogs, he liked them and thought to himself, “If these lion dogs were mine, I would have no fear of villains, if there were hundred villains (caravan robbers), these two would have taken care of them all.”
Then he turned to Tatough and said:
– Lo, lad, give these dogs to me. Ask for as many mules as you want, take them from the caravan with all their load.
– If you gave me your whole caravan, I would not exchange it for my dogs.
– Then you are richer with your two dogs than me with this huge caravan?
– It appears I am, answered Tatough, this huge caravan of yours will not save your life, and may even bring you death, since when the villains come, they will first take your life, and then your goods. My life is safe as long as I have them. If I want, I can take the whole caravan from you with their help, but I am not a villain to act this way.”
They passed a long way so talking, and then the master of the caravan said:
– Since you would not give me your dogs at any price, I will give you an easy riddle. If you guess it, then my caravan is yours, and if not, I take your dogs.
– I agree, said Tatough, give me your riddle.
– See this tumbler? If you guess of what it is made, the caravan is yours, and if you do not, then the dogs are mine.
– Very well, said Tatough, and started giving names of all the trees he knew, “corneal, pear, ash-tree,…” so he gave names of all the trees he knew, but all of them were wrong.
– Then I take the dogs, said the master of the caravan. Leash them and give them to me.
– Wait, let me think a little bit more, said Tatough, there is one tree that I know, it is on the tip of my tongue, but I cannot recall it like that, wait, I am sure it is the one.
At that point something started scratching and squeaking,
– bloody dogwood…, bloody dogwood…, the thing that was saying it was the blood drop at Tagough’s chest.
– I got it, I got it, exclaimed Tatough and grasping the tumbler, said, – It is the bloody dogwood!
– Yes, you got it, said the master of the caravan. You deserve having my caravan.
– I do not need all of your caravan, said Tatough. I am a simple shepherd, and not a tradesman. Give me one bag of clothes so that I can woo a girl for myself to marry, and this will be enough.
The master of the caravan chose the best clothes and all the jewelry and adornments that were needed for the groom, loaded it on a mule and gave to Tatough.
As Tatough drove away from the caravan, he felt something stirring in his bosom. He got his hands on it and took out a monstrous serpent. The drip of blood turned into a serpent that thrust out its head and was aiming at Tatough’s throat. Tatough shook away the serpent that was growing bigger and thicker ever moment until it turned into a dragon, and said to his dogs.
– Zangi-Zrangi, come on, eat her up, so that no drip of blood is left.
The dogs did so, and the dragon girl disappeared. Tatough reached home and brought with him the mule loaded with goods. He wooed a girl and married her.
They had their dreams fulfilled, and so would you.
Source: Gh. Aghayan, Works, Yerevan, 1979, p. 530
Translated by Christine Karapetyan
For modern Armenians snake is a symbol of evil. But few people know that it was not like that in pagan times. Ancient Armenians worshiped snakes.
«According to a legend, each Armenian house had its invisible guardians. Snake brings happiness at home, they were insculped on the doors, on pillars and furniture of houses. Women wore ornaments in the form of a snake because snake was also a symbol of fertility. Snake cult explains such geographical names as Odzun (Odz – in Armenian snake) Odzaberd (snake fortress), Odzi get (Snake river), Odzi Kaghak ( Snaketown) etc. Also an Armenian word Kapa had two meaning: snake skin and people clothes. Moreover, Armenians worshiped harmless Snake (Lord), calling him an Armenian – hay».
But everything was forgotten after Christianity. Ancient peoples had an ambiguous attitude to the snakes. For example: «Sumerian god of wisdom was “Haya ” in the form of a snake. And more interesting fact is that when Bedouins say “Haya” – they mean snake. It’s interesting to know whether modern Bedouins know that «Hay» means an Armenian? Of course not, but their ancient ancestors knew it. Then they were afraid of Armenians more than snakes today. Ceres wrote: “The Bedouins hate snakes as any other animals. They are afraid of them and always kill with a loud cry – haya, haya !!! “» (Arman Revazyan “Makaratc”)
Another interesting fact is that the Jews considered the Armenians Amaleks, their enemies. Most likely that is why Jews hated snakes the most of all. That is why in the Bible the snake was represented as an antipode of God, the enemy of all people.
According to the research done by Nvard Sureni
Stone Age site challenges old archaeological assumptions about human technology
Local innovation rather than population expansion explains the appearance of new technologies in Eurasia more than 300,000 years ago
The analysis of artifacts from a 325,000-year-old site in Armenia shows that human technological innovation occurred intermittently throughout the Old World, rather than spreading from a single point of origin, as previously thought.
The study, published today in the journal Science, examines thousands of stone artifacts retrieved from Nor Geghi 1, a unique site preserved between two lava flows dated to 200,000–400,000 years ago. Layers of floodplain sediments and an ancient soil found between these lava flows contain the archaeological material. The dating of volcanic ash found within the sediments and detailed study of the sediments themselves allowed researchers to correlate the stone tools with a period between 325,000 and 335,000 years ago when the Earth’s climate was similar to today’s.
The stone tools provide early evidence for the simultaneous use of two distinct technologies: biface technology, commonly associated with hand axe production during the Lower Paleolithic, and Levallois technology, a stone tool production method typically attributed to the Middle Stone Age in Africa and the Middle Paleolithic in Eurasia. Traditionally, Archaeologists use the development of Levallois technology and the disappearance of biface technology to mark the transition from the Lower to the Middle Paleolithic roughly 300,000 years ago.
Archaeologists have argued that Levallois technology was invented in Africa and spread to Eurasia with expanding human populations, replacing local biface technologies in the process. This theory draws a link between populations and technologies and thus equates technological change with demographic change. The co-existence of the two technologies at Nor Geghi 1 provides the first clear evidence that local populations developed Levallois technology out of existing biface technology.
“The combination of these different technologies in one place suggests to us that, about 325,000 years ago, people at the site were innovative,” says Daniel Adler, associate professor of Anthropology at the University of Connecticut, and the study’s lead author. Moreover, the chemical analysis of several hundred obsidian artifacts shows that humans at the site utilized obsidian outcrops from as far away as 120 kilometers (approximately 75 miles), suggesting they must also have been capable of exploiting large, environmentally diverse territories.
The paper argues that biface and Levallois technology, while distinct in many regards, share a common pedigree. In biface technology, a mass of stone is shaped through the removal of flakes from two surfaces in order to produce a tool such as a hand axe. The flakes detached during the manufacture of a biface are treated as waste. In Levallois technology, a mass of stone is shaped through the removal of flakes in order to produce a convex surface from which flakes of predetermined size and shape are detached. The predetermined flakes produced through Levallois technology are the desired products. Archaeologists suggest that Levallois t echnology is optimal in terms of raw material use and that the predetermined flakes are relatively small and easy to carry. These were important issues for the highly mobile hunter-gatherers of the time.
It is the novel combination of the shaping and flaking systems that distinguishes Levallois from other technologies, and highlights its evolutionary relationship to biface technology. Based on comparisons of archaeological data from sites in Africa, the Middle East, and Europe, the study also demonstrates that this evolution was gradual and intermittent, and that it occurred independently within different human populations who shared a common technological ancestry, says Adler. In other words Levallois technology evolved out of pre-existing biface technology in different places at different times.
This conclusion challenges the view held by some Archaeologists that technological change resulted from population change during this period. “If I were to take all the artifacts from the site and show them to an archaeologist, they would immediately begin to categorize them into chronologically distinct groups,” Adler said. In reality, the artifacts found at Nor Geghi 1 reflect the technological flexibility and variability of a single population during a period of profound human behavioral and biological change. These results highlight the antiquity of the human capacity for innovation.
This study is the first to present data from Nor Geghi 1, and the research conducted at the site is a collaboration between the University of Connecticut, Yerevan State University, and the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Yerevan. Intellectual contributions to this research were made by and international team of collaborators from Armenia, the United Kingdom, Canada, Spain, Holland, Germany, Ireland, and the United States. Funding for this research was provided by the University of Connecticut (the Norian Armenian Programs Committee, the College of Liberal Arts and Science, the Office of Global Affairs, Study Abroad, and the CLAS Book Committee), the UK Natural Environment Research Council, the L.S.B. Leakey Foundation, the Irish Research Council, and the University of Winchester, UK.
As I wrote in my previous article, Torq Ang'(e)gh was a deity, the son of Ang'(e)gh and the Grandson of Hayk. Moreover, in historical Armenia there is a place (region) known as Ang'(e)gh, named after the father of Torq. Their symbol was ang'(e)gh (a griffon vulture (with a very white head)) and they were called – Ang'(e)gh tohmi jarangnere, the heirs of the House of Vultures. See more:
In Armenian Tor has two meanings 1. a grandchild, q is the plural form, so torq is grandchildren or heirs, 2. rain. In Armenian Artsax Dialect Tor means rain, tora kyalis (galis) means it rains. By the way, in sumerian Tu(o)r is also rain.
The cuneiform sign for tur (tor), is used to denote one syllabic usage, tur, or the sign’s sumerograms; it is used in the Epic of Gilgamesh and the 14th century BC Amarna letters. The sign is based on the i (cuneiform) sign, with the one small added vertical stroke.
Besides tur, it is for sumerograms (logograms) BÀN, DUMU, and TUR. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, it is used in the following numbers: tur-(11 times), BÀN-(3), DUMU-(25), TUR-(2). The large usage of DUMU in the Epic is for the sumerogram being the equivalent of “son” (DUMU-UMUD, Umud is a son in Armenian).
According to the Armenian legend, Torq (Turq) Angegh was a deity, the son of Angegh and the Grandson of Hayk. Moreover, in historical Armenia there is a place (region) known as Ang'(e)gh, probably named after the father of Torq. Their symbol was ang'(e)gh (a vulture) and they were called – Ang'(e)gh tohmi jarangnere, the heirs of the house of vultures. To(u)rq Angegh has a lot to do with rain and storm, but at the same time he was described as a man living in ancient Armenia, Armenian deity. Just read this description
Շատ դարեր առաջ հին Հայաստանում
Տորք-Անգեղ անվամբ մի մարդ էր կենում:
Տորքը չէր նման հասարակ մարդու,
Այլ մի աժդահա եւ շատ ահարկու.
Աչքերը կարծես մի մի կապույտ ծով,
Ճաճանչավորված արեվի լուսով,
Սեւ-սեւ ունքերը մութ ամպի նման
Բարդ-բարդ կուտակված աչքերի վրան
Քիթը կորընթարթ, իբրեւ մի բլուր,
Ատամներն ուրագ, եղունքները թուր.
Կուրծքը կասենաս մի լանջ է լեռան,
Մեջքը սարաժայռ, կռները գերան:
This is a small part of a poem by Ghazaros Aghayan. Only after christianity Torq Angegh got negative meaning and became ugly. Everything predating 301 AD is ugly, this way they made the Armenians be ashamed of thier heritage but anyway, the historical memory never forgets the past, the Armenians call Torq Angeg to the ones who are bigger, who may have had exaggerated features.
Torq was worshipped in historical Armenian territory known as Tegarama or Togorma. The word angel derives from angegh, angels came to the people as birds, angels are with wings. The angels are the derivation of the bird angegh which means vulture. This bird was worshipped among Armenians and considered to be sacred.
Torq was a deity of storm, rain and thunder. They believe, he threw a huge stone in the sea and the ships of the enemies of his people got drowned.
Surprisingly, the Armenians have an expression փոթորիկ անել “potorik anel” which means to make storms.
Lilith was known among ancient Sumerians, she has nothing to do with all kind of negative features and characteristics the Jews gave to her later.
Lilith is known as an invisible Earth’s satellite and for this reason she’s called “Black Moon”. Lilith is still used by some astrologers. 5 years ago on August 11 was the total eclipse of the Sun – a major challenge pattern-almost all planets are in a grand cross in fixed signs. This is like an archaeological dig at the psychic level that uncovers buried layers of our experience, a major piece of work that will show its effects over the next several months or longer.
Eclipses are aligned with the Moon’s Nodes, also called the Dragon Head and Tail. The closer the New or Full moon to the Nodes, the more total the eclipse. An eclipse is a literal darkening, representing an important shift in consciousness, as the unconscious takes over for a potent moment in a transference of energy. The face of the Moon covers the face of the Sun and changes its mask. We will actually “see” this New Moon as a silhouette in front of the Sun. She becomes visible in her darkness.
A New Moon is a new birth from the union of the Sun and Moon, enhanced this time by the altered light of such an eclipse.
According to the ancient Armenian calendar 11 August is the beginning of New year – sunrise in the constellation Orion 4-00 August 11 and on one of the unique in the world “swinging pole” (xiong) indicates on it.
Orion’s Belt in 4.00 a.m. (Armenian time) completely goes out Xiong and became as it is, its natural extension.
Kabbalah is taken from the C(K)Haldian “Book of Numbers”. Kabala means to tie, to fetter, to whip with rope. Kab(p)el, or kab’l in Armenian, kap(b)al em in many Armenian dialects.
To say in modern language it is թուղթ ու գիր անել: It is based on the ancient knowledge which can be used in both positive and negative ways.
(K)Haldi is identical to Hayk/Orion, he was an Armenian king who was later deified as the supreme embodiment of the hero king character.