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December 26, 2013


The founders of Basque national historiography Esteban de Garibay, Andres de Posa and Baltasar de Echave considered Armenia as homeland of Basques. The Armenian origin of Basques was strongly supported by several prominent researchers, such as Joseph Karst Gaspar Eskolano, Edward Spencer Dodgson, and Bernardo Estornes Lasa

By the end of 19th century the English lingust Edward Spencer Dodgson absolutely accidentally made a very interesting discovery. Being already a well-known basqologist, Dodgson  studied Armenian in Parisian “Ecole Special”, in the class of the famous philologist Ogust Career. The result was highly unexpected: already after  2 months studies, Dodgson noticed that many Armenian and Basque words are practically identical. Dodgson  published an article “Basque words in Armenian” in the journal “Euskera” (“Basque language”), in 1884. The list mentioned the parallels between more than fifty words. It was like thunder in the clear sky for the scientists, who long maintained the hypothesis of Georgian origin of Basques.

945548_10151471442323043_1308436392_nFor example,  (with transcriptions) BS- char «bad, evil» – ARM. char «bad, evil», BS. anti «from there» – ARM. anti «from there», BS. ais «wind» -ARM. ais «wind», BS. zati «separate» – ARM. zati «separate», BS. tegi «place» – ARM. tegh «place» .….

The second important discovery on this subject was made later. In 1920s Basque philologist Bernardo Estornes Lasa, a prominent scientist and academician,  was collecting Basque folklore items in Rapcal valley, in the eastern part of province Navarra. In the village Isaba, Estornes Lasa wrote down a local legend according to which the village Isaba was founded by the Armenians, the first inhabitants of Navarra and the ancestors of Basque people.

The legend says that the leader of Basques was called Haytor who arrived from Armenia with his seven sons and in their honour founded seven settlements in Navarra. It also said that the  ancestor of Basques knew the secret of processing metal. Later,  an ancient manuscript was  found in the archives of the village, an ancient historical chronical, which confirmed the spoken legends. Highly notable that in Basque language Isaba is translated as “The trace of ancestors”. Although this can seem absolutely incredible, but the fact remains the fact, in village Isaba exists a road, which has the name Erminia (Armenia), in honour of the first colonizers of Navarra.

601790_10151471459583043_1312972933_nIn Basque language the name of their ancestor Haytor means “Received from Haya” which correlates to Armenian  ‘hay tor’ (“a Grandson of Armenian”).  Joseph Karst also mentioned this fact. The ancestor of Armenians, Hayk, indeed, had a grandson, whose name was Pask (in some Armenian dialects Bask). The first time the possible relationship between Armenian name Pask and etnoname of Basques was indicated by N. Marr. It’s interesting that the Basque  term for thoroughbred   ‘haytoren seme’   means “the son of Haytor”.

All these facts were only the top of iceberg of the greatest secret of the European civilization. The theory of the Armenian origin of the oldest people of Europe has its deep roots in the historical collective memory of Basques and found its reflection in their written sources. As far back as XVI-XVIIcc., the  founders of Basque national historiography Garibay, Andres de Posa and Baltasar de Echave considered Armenia the prehomeland (or original homeland) of Basques and tried to prove this on the basis of Basque-Armenian toponymic parallels…  Araks (the name of a river in Armenia and in the Land of Basques), Apalar, the mountain  in the land of Basques and biblical Ararat, the symbol of Armenians. Moreover, de Posa insisted that Basques are from Armenia. He mentioned that the city Taragona meant “commune of shepherds” and compared it with Armenian Taron, the ancient form of which is – Tarawna.

253234_10151471441688043_568806408_nA spanish historian of 17th century Gaspar Eskolano, in his book about the history of Valencia (1610), wrote that after the Worldwide flood the patriarch Tubal and his people disembarked on the coast of Spain and  they spoke Armenian.

919316_10151471441738043_1430337969_o Besides, Gaspar Eskolano described the place, where, according to the legends, Armenians – the first inhabitants of Spain were buried. Today, on those locations, mainly in modern Catalonia, churches can be found, indicating that the they have been considered sacred for centures.

All this information was defied because  the subject wasn’t discussed and made out with the help of Armenian language. When German linguist Joseph Karst undertook the detailed study of Basque-Armenian parallels,  the hypothesis about Georgian origin of Basques was firmly motivated. Georgian words in Basque language  were obviously borrowings from Armenian, this was indicated by Basque academician Bernard Estorence Lasa.

945548_10151471442323043_1308436392_nIn 1928 Joseph Karst published the results of his studies which caused resonance in the scientific world. He presented more than 300 Basque-Armenian lexical, phonetic and grammatical similiarites, including a shared systems of declension, conjugations and others. Karst came into conclusion that Basque and Armenian languages are two varieties of one linguistical type, which he named Alarodian. Besides, Karst handled the ethnography and the anthropology of Basques and Armenians;  new data and proofs shed light on this matter .

603694_10151471438148043_1047812370_n In 1993 Armenian centre of Yerevan state university founded Armenian-Basque international scientific journal “Araks”, which is edited by armenologists and basqologists from different countries of the world.

Some examples on Armenian – Basque similarities

BS.’jaraunsi'(to inherit)-ARM ‘jarangel'(to inherit)
BS.’astadun'(weighty)-ARM.’hastatun'(strong, steadfast)
BS.’astatu'(to prove)-ARM.’hastatel'(to prove) .

In the Armenian Highlands and in the land of Basques there are enourmous amounts of toponyms, which sometimes get to the level of simple repetition, such as

Ashtarak (a town in Armenia) – Astarak (a settlement in south of France).

Goris (a city in southeast Armenia) – Goris (a settlement in Gascony).

Deba (a river in north Armenia) – Deba (a name of a river in Gascony).

Shubria (the ancient name of Sasun province) – Shuberoa (tha name to Basque province in France).

Araks (a famous river in Armenia) – Arakses (a famous river in Gascony).

Aran (the name of terrain in Armenia) – Aran (Wide-spread toponym in Gascon-speaking part of Catalonia).  

Karkar (area in Western Armenia) – Karkar (famous toponym in Gascony), etc.

Basques call themselves ‘euskaldun(ak)’, which derives from the root word ‘eusk’, in different dialects it has different forms – eusk, usk, esku, asketic. The word is etymologically linked with Armenian word ‘voski’ “gold”, with the variations: iski, veske, aske, ioski. The Armenian word voski “gold” is the root of the proper name ‘Voskan’, which  means “one who owns gold” and it reminds the ethnic name of Basques ‘baskon’, and in latin sources fixed as ‘Vaskon’. In  Armenian – Araratyan Kingdom (“Urartian kindom”), the southeastern coast of the lake Van, which was the crandle of Armenian people, is called  ‘Khubushkia’ which means “valley of usks” that is to say “valley of gold “. In medieval Armenian sources Khubushkia, “valley of usks” or ” golden valley” was renamed into ‘Hayots dzor’ which means “Armenian valley”. On the other hand, the Ushkiani mountains  are mentioned in “Urartian” inscriptions on the northeastern coast of lake Urmia. In the time of Strabo, the Ushkiani mountains  were already identified as ‘Armenian mountains’, but in Armenian sources they are known as ‘Voskean’ -“golden”.

All these facts allow us to conclude that for our ancestors the notions “gold-miner” and “Armenian” were synonymous, which is also evidenced by Basque legends.

In conclusion, there was a genetic study done in different regions of Armenia, that detected that the characteristic genetic code prevalent in Welsh, Basques and Irish, called the Atlantic Modal Haplotype, is also present in Armenian population of Syunik and Artsax. These are two Armenian provinces predominantly isolated in the mountains, which precluded genetic admixture with neighboring ethnic groups and nations». The Armenian modal haplotype is also the modal R1b3 haplotype.

For a proximate examination of European affiliations to Armenians, you may also refer to a study done by Michael E. Weale, Rolf F. Jager and Neil Bradman in 2001 called “Armenian Y chromosome haplotypes reveal strong regional structure within a single ethno-national group, revealing prevalent link between Welsh, Basques and Irish to the Armenian populace in Syunik and Karabakh. You may access this study by contacting:

Departments of Biology and Anthropology,
University College London, University of London,
Darwin Bdg, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Tel.: +44-207-4043040, Fax: +44-207-4042081

Another fact: Ireland is an Armenian term, which is derived from the word Eyre, meaning to burn, he burns and any other variation, and it was associated with the Celtic God Eyre. You can also see the similarities between Armenian and Celtic stone carvings, which no other similarity is present anywhere else in the world. Also, is not a coincidence that the word Spain, is a Basque-derivative term of Espanna.

Anyone claiming these are coincidental suppositions are more claims of an inferiority complex rather than strict examinations of their unlikely coincidences and due to mere probabilistic terms, a coincidence is astronomically unlikely. Remember what Robert Ellis, a British scholar once declared, “Armenian conquests of Europe were during pre-historic and pre-traditional times.” Think about it…

According to the papers  published by Vahan Sargsyan and Vahan Setyan


From → Uncategorized

  1. Vahan Setyan, PhD permalink

    Thank you for posting some of my work on your page. Much appreciated. A more detailed approach will be taken in my upcoming book, Timewalk Chronicles, which will be released in February of next year.

  2. Yaromir Steiner permalink

    Sequencing the genomes of Basques and Armenians should be another way of establishing this connection!

    • there was a genetic study done in different regions of Armenia, that detected that the characteristic genetic code prevalent in Welsh, Basques and Irish, called the Atlantic Modal Haplotype, is also present in Armenian population of Syunik and Artsax. These are two Armenian provinces predominantly isolated in the mountains, which precluded genetic admixture with neighboring ethnic groups and nations». The Armenian modal haplotype is also the modal R1b3 haplotype.

  3. For decades Armenian writings at ancient churches places such as Cadiz, Spain and many carved cross-stones (Khach Kars) have been noticed throughout the Basque country with Armenian letters on them with many more Basque words with Armenian roots:
    • char «bad, evil» – ARM. char «bad, evil»,
    • anti «from there» – ARM. anti «from there»,
    • ais «wind» -ARM. ais «wind»,
    • zati «separate» – ARM. zat «apart»,
    • tegi «place» – ARM. tegh «place» …..
    • herry – erkir,ergir ,herkir,hergir – earth
    • harri – kar – stone
    • ur – jur – water
    • egun (‘day’) – irgun(‘evening’),eguts(‘tomorrow’)
    • haran – aran – Valley
    • txar (‘bad’) – char(‘evil’,’bad’)
    • jarri(‘to become’) – darnal(‘to become’) dari,darci(turn back!,become!)
    • erre (‘burn’) – airel(‘to glow’,’to burn’) ,erel,ervel
    • egin – anel,enel,e’nel – do
    • esan(‘say’) – asel, e’sel(‘to say’) asin,asan,e’sin(said) -say
    • katu – katu – cat
    Like the Britons have acknowledged, that their first settlers were Armenians who had come in long boats. Time for an official recognition also of the origin of the Basque.

  4. In the past decade, a paper was published by Vahan Sargisyan, Ph.D., University of Yerevan, Republic of Armenia, President of International Linguistic Academy on the roots of the Basque language having Armenian origins. Time for a joint Basque/Armenian Commission,with panel of experts from both sides, along with perhaps DNA experts such as Prof. Levon Yepiskoposyan to formally resolve this pestering enigma on the origins of the Basque people.

  5. Elis permalink

    This narinnamkn post comes closest to the most likely reality when it discusses the Urartu and Basque nations, not the Armenian and Basque nations. The connection between the Urartu and Basque nations could have occurred only at a time many thousands of years before the Urartu and Armenian nations merged into one. Furthermore, the connection wouldn’t be unique between the Urartu and Basque nations: In order for this theory to work, the Urartu people would have moved tribally (and slowly over the course of generations) between the land that is now Armenia and the land that is now Euskadi, leaving descendents along all the lands in between, i.e., southern Europe. Keep in mind that the Etruscans also spoke a non-Indo-European language, and possibly did the Picts, and there’re other hints of pre-Indo-European languages in Europe like Lemnian.

    In order for nainnamkn to solidify this theory, though, the theory would have to take into account the fact that according to the best modern linguistic scholarship possible, Basque is most closely related to Northern Caucasian languages like Chechen, and not Southern Caucasian languages like Urartu and Georgian. ( ). That is not good for nainnamkn’s theory. Frankly, all the similarities nainnamkn cites between the Armenian and Euskara languages could be random similarities or poor linguistic work in general; it is really not good for nainnamkn that nainnamkn has to cite studies done almost or way more than 100 years ago. That era was not noted for sound research into historical linguistics. If you delve more into the linguistic scholarship of that era, you’ll come across oodles of crazy theories. Nainnamkn needs something better than ancient, untrustworthy linguistic scholarship and population genetics data the lay interpretation of which is little better than reading tea leaves to prove these theories.

    • Thank you Elis for your remark ! Actually, my articles are never based on wikipedia (we can agree that wikipedia is not a documentary source), but on the works of several prominent linguists, historians, archeologists ….. as you can see I mentioned them. Ure remark about so-called “Urartu” language is out of discussion, you can never prove that there was an “Urartian” language. Urartu is the same Armenia but in Assyrian. In the trilingual Behistun inscription, carved in 521/0 BC by the order of Darius the Great of Persia, the country referred to as Urartu in Assyrian is called Arminiya in Old Persian and Harminuia in Elamite. And this is not the only proof. The term Urartu was used by Dyakonov to make a fake history for the people of Azerbajan (here I want to mention that not all but most of the historical lands of nowdays Azerbajan are the lands of Talish, Lezgin, Udi people, and this is another topic of discussion). Later he said sorry to Armenian people and accepted the fact that he did it for money (you can find about it in his last book). Unfortunately, on his fake thesis some other historians made other theories. We have a lot of proofs that so-called Urartian is Armenian and there would be more articles on this topoic. As you know from official documents, Armenian is an EL, but it is not in any subgroup. It is incorrect to put Armenian only in EL group because it has linguistic and phonetic basis also with the language of people of Noxchi or Vainakh. In this article, it is mentioned the proofs of Basque-Armenian linguistic, historical and origin similarities which can’t be coincidence. About historical linguistics and its development u’re wrong, unlike you, I do delve more into the linguistic scholarship and I need to mention my knowledge is not based on wikipedia ! To refuse everything in order to put your idea ahead is not accurate, indeed. I am not going to discuss Gerogian language here, it was discussed much, all Basque-Georgian similarities are just some common words which are the same in Armenian, exactly all words. Moreover, genetic investigation proved that Georgian and Basque people are different people (The basic haplos of the Georgians are G2 and J1), there are no common toponyms or legends. In case of Armenians there are. The language of Noxchi is not examined carefully yet. And that is very pity. Some years ago Chechen, Ingush and Armenian linguists and historians worked together on Noxchi-Armenian historical connections. Unfortunately, the war in Chechnya stopped their cooperation and I hope one day they will go on with their research. But even what they found out was amazing: there are a number of similar toponyms. Moreover, according to their investigation Nakh-Dagestani language was formed in the Armenian Highlands ! In their investigation you can also find about the stages of emigration from the Armenian Highlands to Caucasus… U can find the information in the sources of the Ministry of the Chechen Republic for National Policy, Press and Information

      • Elis permalink

        Ձեր տեսությունը ոչ մի հիմք չունի ժամանակակից գիտությունից։ Եվրոպական ու Ամերիկյան համալսարանների գիտականների տեսությունները սաղ դեմուդիմաց են ձեր անհիմք տեսությունից։ միայն ժամանակակից Եվրոպական ու Ամերիկյան գիտական ամսագրիներ առաջ բերեք։

      • sa im tesutyune che, hodvatsum nshvats e, te um ashxatutyunneri himan vra e grvats, inchpes tesnum eq’ nranq bolorn el akanavor gitnakanner en !! ete karox eq voch miayn animast merjel, bayts naev himnavorel dzer gratse, aveli lav klini !!!

      • Elis permalink

        Ես ոչ մի պարտք չունեմ։ Դուք պարտք ունեք միայն վստահելի հոդվածներ առաջ բերեք։ Եթե ժամանակակից չէ, վստահելի չէ։ Եթե ժամանակակից Եվրոպական կամ Ամերիկյան համալսարաններ չեին հրատարակեին մի բան, վստահելի չէ։ Ւ լրածումն, դուք շփոթում եք 1) գիտականների տեղեկուքյուն 2) ու ձեր եզրափակումներ։ չնայած մի ժամանակակից հոդված ունի տեղեկություն, բայց այդ հոդվածի գրողը չեր համաձայնվեր ձեր եզրափակումի հետ, մասնավորապես ծագումնաբանական տեղեկություն։

      • ete ardzaganqum eq hodvatsin, apa naev partq uneq hakadardzel ayn pastagrutyamb !!! Ete parzapes merjum eq, uxxaki merjelu hamar, uremn dzer grarumn anarjeq e. Hodvatsum mejbervum en vstaheli ev akanavor masnagetner, ev, i tarberutyun dzez, nranq ashxatanq en katarel, paster ev apatsuytsner en nerkayatsrel. Esteban de Garibay, Andres de Posa and Baltasar de Echave, Joseph Karst, Gaspar Eskolano, Edward Spencer Dodgson, and Bernardo Estornes Lasa, ev aylots ashxatutyunnere ev apatsuytsnere dzer animast, chpastagrvats grarman dem.

      • Mash permalink

        պարզ երևում է որ հայերենը գուգլի միջոցով է թարգմանված: նույնիսկ կարելի է կռահել Elis-ի ազգությունը 🙂

  6. Alex permalink

    This is interesting article and hypothesis. I want to add couple words about Dyakonov. In defense of his theory he is not questionning connection between Armenians and Urartians. In fact he is stating that Alarodians and Hurrits with very small percentage of indoeuropeans Mushks are ancestors of Armenians. According to his theory for unknown reason most of Urartians accepted language of Mushks who were in much smaller numbers. Armenian language has borrowing from Urartian because for significant amount of time people were bilingual.
    Another point: I do not think that those words in article which are similar in Basque and Armenian are coming from same Urartian root. Most of those words are not Urartian. Vainach/Chechen language is closest living language to Urartian.

    • hi Alex, ure comment suggests that Vainach (here I’d like to add that Vainach people are not only Chechen but also Ingush people) language is the closest living language to “Urartian”, accordingly, it is the closest living language to Armenian cuz Urartu is Armenia in Assyrian and “Urartian” scripts one can read only with the help of Armenian language. In the trilingual Behistun inscription, carved in 521/0 BC by the order of Darius the Great of Persia, the country referred to as Urartu in Assyrian is called Arminiya in Old Persian and Harminuia in Elamite. And this is not the only proof. I need to repeat: Dyakonov said sorry to Armenians and accepted the fact that he did it for money (u can find about it in his last book). And how do falsifications work out? A bit of truth+a bit of lie, here we have the model of Dyakonov. I think that Vainakh people emigrated from the Armenian Highlands, and their language was originated in the Armenian Highlands. There is some investigation on this topic, Marr and some others mentioned it, but it’s not enough: the investigation should be done in Armenian-Vainach parallels: two people have the same pantheon of ancient gods, they both have the same ansestors in their generation tree, Armenians have the story of “Brave Nazar”, Ingush people have the same one named “Brave Nazai”, both have the same myth about Milky Way. Anyway, Dyakonov is not an accurate source, I am sorry Read his last book , there he mentioned that he did all his researches for money and added that creating ancient history for some people for money was the only way to survive for his family.

      • Alis permalink

        I lean toward your theory. I did my DNA ancestry test recently and it came back saying I am related to Basques and Scandinavians. I opened this article because it was interesting for me to see any connections, and I found there is. So dear Elis accept the facts and move on.

  7. Alex permalink

    Hi, Narinnamkn. There is a connection of Armenian and Vainach language through Urartian roots. I agree with it but Chechen/ingush language has more significant Urartian load than Armenian which is Indoeuropean language. So it is easier to decode Urartian scripts with use of Vainach language. And yes, probably Vainach ancestors moved from Armenian Highlands to Northern Caucasus long time ago, possibly during decline of Urartian kingdom. So they related to Armenians through common nonindoeuropean alarodian genes. By the way Richard Suni has somewhat similar views to Dyakonovs about Armenian origin. It seems that you think of Armenians as Urartians without any change whatsoever. It may be partially true in regards of core of genetic pool but it is not true when we are talking about language.
    Anyway, I think we deviated significantly from original topic of Basque-Armenian connection.
    Thanks again for interesting article.

    • I am sorry but you didn’t understand the key point, there would be more articles about “Urartu”, as I mentioned before Urartu is the same Armenia in Assyrian language. The term “Urartian” language was brought into linguistics by Dyakonov and some other “historians”, without any research, made different theories, Suni, Starostin and others are among them !! By the way, they all mentioned the same fake-research by Dyakonov !!! If “Urartu” is the same Armenia in Assyrian language then “Urartian” is Armenian language. There are some simillarities, system of declenasion, some stock of words in Vainach-“Urartian” but noone could read the scripts in Vainach language, anyway, the same system of declension, more words, phonetic structure one can see in Armenian language, and a number of Armenian and non-Armenian linguists read almost all “Urartian” scripts with the help of Armenian. I suggest u to get acquainted with all those works, then if you don’t agree with them, you can give your remarks providing documentation, but to do it you need to know Armenian very well, good luck

      To the Armenian language the standard approach can’t be applied, and it’s wrong to treat it just as an Indo-European language .. It is not right to say that all Armenians have IE genes or apply Armenian language in a standard approach as an IE language. When there was Armenia and Armenian language there was no such a term – IE languages. Now they just put Armenian in that standard approach in order to rechange the history of Armenian people as it has been done for centuries.

  8. Alex permalink

    Narinnamkh. There are different theories about urartian language and unfortunately none proven to this day. We can argue all day long but the bottom line is that your point of view is just another theory. If you have source which provides prove or at least good arguments, please let me know. I will gladly change my mind. And by the way : Yes hayeren gitem.

    • Alex, I will post some information about “Urartian” language but the fact you trust Suni who made his work on Dyakonov’s fake theory (which he denied and you don’t trust the ancient artifacts such as well-known trilingual Behistun inscription, carved in 521/0 BC by the order of Darius the Great of Persia, where Armenia referred to as Urartu in Assyrian, is called Arminiya in Old Persian and Harminuia in Elamite, it would be difficult for you to be objective in judging and changing ure mind but you, I think, will try your best 🙂 I haven’t posted about “Urartian” language yet but I’ll do , for sure, follow the blog !!!

  9. Very interesting! Someone once asked my mother if she was Basque, but we didn’t realize that there was any connection between Armenian and Basque. Thank you for writing such a detailed article.

  10. Seta karakelian permalink

    Another similarity, Armenians are the only people on earth that make the sign of cross on the dough of bread. They say the Basques also have the same tradition.

  11. One more word Arche ( Bear ) BS – Arch (Bear) AM

    Thanks for interesting information

  12. Shoghig permalink

    There is also other researches which confirmes this, done by Robert Dezelus, French, his book on this topic was edited in 1998.

    • Thanx a lot 🙂 there would be another post about the Basques, I will add the research by Dezelus as well

  13. Vahan Setyan, PhD permalink

    There is no such thing as Urartu. Its a made up name. The were the same Armenians as today.

  14. Narek S permalink

    Dear Author,
    I like your article and the analyses, except for the questionable reference to an article in a website “ I think your point is much stronger without it. Consider a more solid reference.

    • thanx Narek, but I never use any information from, I have no idea what page it is. On the other hand, they could also post some information on this subject using the works of the researches I mentioned here

  15. zohrab kazandjian permalink

    narinnamken ,shad aganch mi gakhek ELIS.i kradzneroun ,ir veloudzapanoutyounnere hmnvadz yen geghdziki vra ,vsdah vor hay che ayl .to kides inch esel gouzem ,shnorhagaloutyoun .

  16. Mash permalink

    Very interesting article.
    By the way I’ve heard that there is a Shirak lowland in Basque territory. Do you have any information on that?

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  22. Artur Ghazaryan permalink

    This was a very informative and useful article. Thank you!

  23. Bedros Anserian permalink

    Thank you sharing this interesting web page, and eye opening article, with us.
    Vartzkernit gadar.

  24. Thanks a lot. Good stuff!

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  32. actually J2 is more dominant in armenia . any R1b there is from steppe invaders . if basques are related to armenians then they should be J2 .. especially J2a4b m67 .. actually tuscans are more likely related to armenians as they show high J2 m67 & m92 via their etruscan ancestors

    • Here u are not totally correct, the basic Armenian haplogroup is R1b. The oldest sample of this haplogroup is more important than the highest percentage (anyway, the percentage of R1b is higher among the Armenians than J2, this is the second one ). I need to add that the oldest samples of both R1b and J2 are found among Armenians. Moreover, R1b is scientifically called Armenian, Italo-Celtic, German, Tocharian
      “In our study the ancestry of the Armenians was traced back to different parts of Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Turkey, illustrating the fact that historic Armenia was a much larger territory than that of the present Republic of Armenia”.

      University of Tartu Faculty of biology and geography Institute of molecular and cell biology Department of evolutionary biology Urmas Roostalu M Sc. Rva-Liis Loogvali Prof Dr. Richard Villems Tartu 2004

      Keep in mind that by mentioning Armenia I don’t mean nowdays Armenia but the Armenian Highland. I also need to add that it is important to check the most rare, basal lineages of any localized ethnic group, but not the highest percentage:

    • CHEKIJIAN permalink

      I have J2a4b (M67) and I do not have a single exact yDNA match with anyone, Tuscan or otherwise. Having said that, YES, more J2 clusters Tuscany, and specially in a place like Salerno, Italy, where I went to look into this and found that there was a major migration during the Roman Empire from the eastern Mediternean, where the people had come on boats, and brought Water Buffalos with them, as a result, “Buffalo Mozzarella” cheese has become very popular product in the Salerno area, which has no marshes for buffalo to have originated.

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  39. Jasmine permalink

    Biza – մորուք /հայերեն`, բիզա – ծերունի/
    Puchik – փուչիկ
    Hamar – տաս
    Համազասպ – 17;

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  49. Dyakonov’s work was indeed falsified…, one can speculate about his through motives.
    We knew that Armenia (or Arminua or Hirminua ) and Urartu are the same, not only form the stone insribtion, but also form hypothesis of backward Assirian translation of Urartu = Ararat , which has been a known symbol of Armenians.

  50. Mardig Madenjian permalink

    The article is very interesting. I have read many articles about the Basques and Irish and Scottish-Armenian relationships. I am afraid that we succumb in a mistake by mentioning all these resemblances. Do not forget that Armenian is a Indo-European language like others.
    Yegar in Spanish has the same meaning as in Armenian, Gato, gadou (Cat), luce and Luys (light)3 and many others. Also in German, you say Du (you) Arm. is Dou (pronunciation). German Tür (door) was before Tur and became dür. Armenian for door is Tour. German for Tochter (daughter) was in Armenian Toukht (Khosrovitoukht) santoukht (Sanadroug toukht). I always think that the reason is Indo-European. In Iranian Tabar ha the same meaning and pronunciation as in Armenian, also Panir, (Cheese) Hazar (Thousand), das (ten), azad (free) Khoban tashd. Many others. Even in Ourdu das, hazar, azad3 panir have the same meaning as in Armenian. I think the relationship comes from Indo-European language similarities.

    • The relationship is not only in some words ! and Armenian language is not IE, it’s older than IE itself

  51. Susan Esparza permalink

    This is “interesting”, but what about physical Traits. Like our Blood! Prevelance of webbed toes and other physical identifiers. Sorry, anything can be found in a sound. You can make.any two sounds , similiar. Are there NO Basques that have any memory as to where we started? Or were we here sooo long that it was forgotten.Basques are kind of like Native Americans- they just are and they are not like other Beings. As well Basques are different and we know that at a cellular level. Have felt it since being born and aware of a ray of sunlight. We just are.

    • The Basques are very close to the Armenians (especially to the Armenians of Artsakh region).. And it is not only about some words, the Armenians of the region I mentioned also have R1b3 haplotype.

  52. carol permalink

    My grandmother was Armenian and my mother 3/4 Armenian and all three of us have/had 0 negative blood. I had read that the Basques have the highest concentration of 0 negative blood. Anyone know anything about whether there is high incidence of 0 neg blood in Armenians? Now that I’ve asked..I think I’ll go try to look it up. My grandmother not only put a cross of the “Easter” bread…but also a coin and whoever got the piece with the coin would have prosperity that year.

    • It is not researched much but it is common to many Armenian women. I know for sure that in Armenia they made a special ‘Immunoglobulin” for the women with Rh negative whose children have positive RH

  53. Bradley Benz permalink

    I have done much research into blood and genetics of the Indo‒European (IE) peoples, and am happy to see this article because it, to an extent, corroborates a part of my own conclusions. I would like to share my hypo‒thesis here because the evidence I have synthesized is strong and consistently points to one conclusion. I am thus confident it is largely true and will act as a skeleton key of sorts for many people because it explains much … would like comments very much.

    All IE peoples originated in ARmenia, whose people were bestowed exclusively the R1b haplo and A‒ blood groups.

    Civilization was restarted by Utnapishtim (AKA Noah) and his eight travelers at around BC 9,600 (postdiluvian times). What was clearly Utnapishtim’s ARk has been found, having landed just south of Mount ARARat in what is now far‒eastern Turkey. However, since ~BC 9,600 this area has been part of ARmenia, that is, the land of “the people of AR,” the ARyans. Utnapishtim and the other eight travelers were the seed of the ARmenian people, the progenitors of every Indo‒European culture and language, of agriculture, animal husbandry, science and astronomy, pottery, metal smithy, the wheel, chARiot, and horsemanship, amongst much else. Additionally, as evidenced by Gilgamesh, ancient ARmenians were of giant stature.

    Specifics regarding their migrations are fuzzy, but several millennia later saw them found neighboring SumARia and Sanskrit, which evolved into the SumARian language, in‒turn evolving into the IE languages. ARmenians also migrated far and wide, and founded all of the great ancient civilizations. To the west they established Egypt (they were the early phARaohs), Greece, the greater Mediterranean, Ethiopia, Niger and Chad, all of Europe including Basque country (who were the progenitors of ARland/Ireland), even swaths thru the Americas. To the east they established Russia, Persia (ARan/Iran), the Andronovo culture, India and Indonesia, China/Korea and Japan, all the way to Australia and NZ.

    The sauvastika (a CCW svastika) is also of ARmenia origination. The symbol’s center represents their home, each of the four hooked legs waterways (of their migratory dispersion) that spin outward from the region; the Mediterranean Sea, ARabian Sea, Black Sea, and Caspian/ARal Seas, with a river emptying into each, their headwaters located tightly together in the ARmenian highlands.

    Distinctly new genetic haplo groups were formed in many places in which they migrated, while ARmenians staying home lost some purity of blood and genes over time. At present, in Asia, most ARmenian purity has been blended out, but not so in Europe. Their genetics have remained particularly pure in the Lezgins of the Caucasus, the Basque, in SARdinia, the British Isles, Germany, Scandinavia, and in the Baltics. Haplo groups I (lactose tolerant) and R1a are direct descendants of the R1b haplo group. The prevalence of Rh‒ blood has diminished substantially owing only to it being recessive.

    I bring little bias because I am not ARmenian and have O+ blood. I do not know my genetic profile, but suspect it is primarily I1 and R1b.

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  55. Hagop Nalbandian permalink

    Very well written article. Thank you very much.

  56. I wonder if any genetic analysis has been done to confirm the above links. It should give us a definite conclusion to this issue

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