There is no difference between Armenian Է (é) and ʾĒl (written aleph-lamed, e.g. Ugaritic: 𐎛𐎍, Phoenician: 𐤋𐤀, Classical Syriac: ܐܠ, Hebrew: אל, Arabic: إل or إله, cognate to Akkadian: ilu) Northwest Semitic word meaning “deity”. El or Il was a god also known as the Father of humankind and all creatures. In Northwest Semitic usage El was both a generic word for any “god” and the special name or title of a particular God who was distinguished from other gods as being “the god”, or in the monotheistic sense, God. El is listed at the head of many pantheons. El is the Father God among the Canaanites.
About Armenian Է (é) check my the article here in my blog “Sacred Letter Է as a Divine Essence” https://narinnamkn.wordpress.com/2013/10/21/sacred-letter-%D5%A7-as-a-divine-essence/
Armenian Է (é) corresponds with the Armenian God AR-ARA also had enough offsprings, such as
Mesopotamian – Erra,
in Hittite – Iarri- Yarri,
in Egyptian Ra,
Er the son of Platons hero Armenos,
Slavonic Yarilo son God and others.
Actually, it goes to Hara (Haya) – Mother Goddess. It became masculine after the maternity was replaced by the paternity. But even before the matriarchal societies Hara meant “Eternity”, Har means eternal in Armenian.
There is no doubt that we are dealing with phenomenon called “cultural diffusion” and variational conjugations and in this peculiar case also the ancient Indo-European but also semitic attribution. And in both cases the roots go to Armenian people.
According to a number of scholars, Ar, was a shorter version of Ara or Arar(ich), Creator. The worship of Ar was wide spread amongst early Armenians who worshipped this deity and simply called him the Creator (Ara or Ararich).
In colloquial Armenian, the name “Ara” also became synonymous with the word “man” (especially a male), and Armenian men still informally address each other (with the self-designative name) “Ara,” after the name of the Creator God – Ar(a).
By the way, in Urdu there is a word ” Araish ” which means decoration and they used the word “Ara” as a part of a female name like “Jahan Ara ” it means , decorator of the world.
In ancient Persia they say to the children of the sun – Armahniah.
In all possible sources it is mentioned that semitic people took it from the Punics and the Phoenicians !!! And who are now the descedents of the Phoenicians? How the ancient Middle East flowed into Northern India? The question that peaks my interest is rather smaller in scope—namely, whether the Hittites and proto-Phoenicians, at one time, among some other Armenian tribes, were A SINGLE PEOPLE … or, rather, two different tribes of A LARGE UMBRELA GROUP – Armenian group.
This has a lot to do with the origin of the names of Armenian, Assyrian and Roman Empires. The God Ar ( or Ara) : —- It has been shown by some Orientalists-Armenologists in a number of quotations of mythological and historical date that the native people of the Armenian Highland and the neighboring regions of what is now Asia Minor (it is part of Armenian highland) had, in the earlier periods of paganism, a deity whom they called Ar or Ara.
In the primitive hunting stage of the life of these natives, the god Ara possessed animal –vegetal characteristics. Later, with the beginning of agriculture, he acquired vegetal-solar nature and with the development of irrigation in agriculture and the consolidation of statehood, he became a great war-god and was identified with the sun.
This process of change from primitive to complex characteristics, as manifested in the nature of Ar (or Ara), is by no means unique in the mythological history of mankind. It has had its close parallels. For example, the god Assur, in the earlier periods of the founding of the city of Assur, had a vegetal (peaceful) nature, but later on, when Assyria become a mighty empire by bloody expeditions, it turned into a fearsome deity and was identified with the sun.
Research has revealed that in the remote past Ar (or Ara) was the principal national deity of the Armen people.
…The known Orientalist A.H. Sayce states that Ar was the sun-god of the Armenians. In his words: “…it is better to suppose that Er, or Ara, was an Armenian name for the Sun-god, which in later times was confounded with Arios (Nergal) or Ktesias.”
In this connection H.Matikain writes: “To study Ara the Beautiful means to make inroads into the obscure centuries of the origin of the Armenian people and to examine them.” We do not think it is necessary here to delve further into the nature of Ara, because we have already treated this topic at great length in our previous works and have shown with numerous evidence that Ara was the native and national deity of the Armenians. However, because of the importance it bears upon the subject under study, we think it will be helpful to mention here some facts related to the formation and the meaning of the national name Armani and Armenians which is closely linked to Ara.
It is known in historiography and archaeology that the name of many ancient peoples have been related to the names of their principal deities.
In the remote past each tribe, even each household, had its own totem, its object of worship, or its god. With the increasing of the household or the tribe in size and in strength, its god has correspondingly acquired greater significance and power. We learn from cuneiform inscriptions that battles waged between tribes and states have been fought mostly for and in the name of the gods of the fighting sides. In many cases tribes and states were distinguished from each other by the names of the gods. In the same way have originated also the name of many habitations and countries.
Because of intertribal wars, a given tribe was forced to fortify a central area on its territory where it kept its sacred totem in safety or established the throne (or the temple) of its god, from whom that particular place derived, subsequently, its name. Later on, as the tribe has grown and spread out, that fortified habitation has become an administrative and economic center, and still later the capital.
Very often we read in cuneiform writings that a certain king has defeated the king of the land of certain city. We have seen statements of this kind in the well-known Hittite inscription about Naram-Sin, where among his 17 enemies there is one mentioned as “Madatina, the king of the land of the city of Armani.” This shows clearly that the country of a tribe or a state could have derived its name from the name of its central or royal city, which, in many cases, bore the name of the principal god of that particular tribe or people.
This is how have originated, for example, the names of the great Assyrian and Roman empires, which were originally the name of the central cities, Assur and Rome, of the given tribes, and where each tribe had established own object of worship, Assur and Romulus, respectively. The same is true also about the Greeks who call themselves Hellenes and their country Hellada (Hellas) after the name of their god Hellenos.
Dr. H. Martkian writes: “The history of each nation has begun with a mythological worldview… An Armenian history should never lose sight of this point; herein lies the Gordian knot of our history.” And Dr. G. Conteneau has this to say: “In remote antiquity no difference was made between a country and its gods.” In view of all these considerations, one would expect that the name Armani or Armeni that represents one of the most ancient peoples and the tribal unions of Western Asia should have been derived from the name of the principal deity of that tribe or people. And indeed, as we have seen, the name of that principal national deity was Ar or Ara.
The coins left in ancient Briton by Phoenician mariners with the name “ Catti ” imprinted on them. Likewise,and “the Phoenicians usually spelt their tribal name of ‘ Khatti ‘ or ‘ Catti ‘ or ‘Gad,’ and were in the habit not infrequently of calling their rivers at their settlements ‘ Gadi,’ ‘Gad- es ‘ or ‘ Ka-desh ‘.”
Historians have long known that the Spanish city Cadiz was once a Phoenician colony called “ Gades ”. In Scotland, a river named by the Phoenicians is likewise known as the “ Gadie ”.
Could these variants of “ Catti ” be derived from the “ Khatti ” whence we get the term “Hittite”?
What we know about Hittites and their connection with the Armenians is the followings:
1. In his books, Explorations in Bible Lands During the 19th Century and The Hittites, German-American Assyriologist and archaeologist Hermann Volrath Hilprecht asserts that the Hittites indeed spoke Armenian.
2. The Hittite Aryans that became more powerful than the Armenians by 1500 BC were close neighbors and racial cousins of the Armenians, at times clashing with them and at times co-existing, yet probably gaining from the interaction at all times.
Ashok Malhotra (India)
3. “The Hittites, Luwians, Phrygians and the people of Hayasa, with whom the Armenians are associated, spoke Indo-European languages “The Kingdom of Armenia – Page 265 by Mack Chahin.
4. In the Solution to the Hittite Question Peter Jensen in 1893 proposed that Armenian is the closest language to the Hittite language.
5. “Of these proto-Armenians, the most important branch were the Hittites. They established themselves in the heart of the Semitic territory and founded an empire which contented on equal terms with Egypt, and once extended its sway as far as the Aegean”.
The Old Eastern World – The New York Times
6. “So far as it is possible to infer from proper names, the language of the Hittites belonged to the same family of speech as the languages spoken by the Patiani (between the Orontes and the bay of Antioch), the Kilikians, Kuai, Samahlai, Gamgumai, Komagenians, Moschi and Tibareni, the proto-Armenians, and other tribes who occupied the country between the Caspian and the Halys on the one side, and Mesopotamia on the other. This family of speech has been conveniently termed Alarodian”.”
Here it is some interesting information http://rbedrosian.com/Classic/Petrosyan/haldi.htm
Movses Khorenantsi, drawing his information from Mar Aba’s book, uses a distinctive expression for Hyek:”the Yapetostean Hayk”,i.e. having the nature of Yapetos-Hephaestus.Remembering that Hephaestus was a god of fire, such a characterization of Hyek appears to have taken place during the Hellenistic(Artashessian)period of Armenia when Hyek’s fiery nature was still remembered.
Personified as the eponymic ancestor of the Armenian people, Hyek is also described as having “very curly hair and sparkling eyes”,a description that was inspired by his fiery nature and paralleled with that given to Vahagn who, too “had hair of fire…and his eyes were two suns.”
In the old genealogical list preserved by Khorenatsi, Hyek is considered the son of Torgom. The origin of this name is linked with that of the city-land of Tarkuma/Tarhigama(some scholars locate this city in Hyeasa, but others who place it in the south-western regions of the Armenian Highland((see Tarkuma)), in Arme-Subaria, north of Syria(see Tarhigamani), seem to be more correct. In this connection, it might be right to point out the village of Derik, below Angel Tun-the birthplace of Angls or English, in the region of the sources of the Khabur, 40km west of Mardin.As we have seen before, Adad-Nirari-2 called this region Hark'((Harki)) which was in Armani as mentioned by Naram-Sin)mentioned in Hittite and Urartian inscriptions.
It must be recalled that Hyek is a deity, hence, he should have been considered the son of the god Tarku, the god Tork’ of Armenians, whose name is radical component of the city name of Tarkuma/Tarhigama.Tork’s main temple was in Aghtznik(Arme-Subaria), at the Armenian sacred city-fortress Angel-Tun(Ingalava?), now called Egil.
Among Armenians Tork ‘was also called Tork’Angel; Khorenatsi refers to him as Tork’of Angel, i.e.Tork’ of Angelian descent.In the Old Armenian translation of the Bible, the god of the Underworld, Nergal of the Semitic text, is translated as Angel(who probably corresponds also to the Sumerian Engur, the god of the Abyss).
Thus it becomes easier to understand why Hyek, the god of volcano(later attributed to Vahagn) is called “son of Torgom”, i.e. the son of Angelian Tork,’the god of the Underworld, because both the volcano and the god of volcano originate from the underworld forces.
The epic of Hyek’s fight against Bel (the Babylonian God) provides a substantial proof that Hyek and his people were already in existance in the land called Hark’, at the center of the Armenian-Nairian Highland, at the time when Bel was carrying out his raids, that is, when the mighty Assyro-Babylonian empire was seeking to expand; a proof which, unfortunately, has been overlooked by those who (wrongly) support the theory of migration of Armenian people from the Balkans.
These were the people of Haldi-Hyek, who, as the natives of their own highland, have fought long and bloody battles to protect their homeland against foreign invasions. Because of the fact that the Armenian Highland is situated at the crossroads of continents where different civilizations have met, foreign deities have penetrated into the land in later periods, and Hyek, the indigenous god of the land was raised to heaven as a star and identified with the constelation Orion.
As already pointed out, the most ancient and principal national deity of the Armenian people was the deity of the sun and fire. As time progressed, however, this great deity was divided in two, just as it had occurred in the case of his consort, the goddess Inanna-Anahit. His nature of fire and his nature of the sun began to be represented separately and by different names. Thus, in Urartian times, his character of fire was represented by the name Haldi, and that of the sun by the name Siwini.
In Armenia, after the fall of the Urartian dynasty, the name Mihr was given to this one great deity that embodied the powers of fire and the sun.
While utilizing the name Mihr for this great god, the Armenians have, nonetheless, pictured him, as in Urartian times, with a duality of nature, distinguishing between his characteristics of fire and the sun. This is why, in the epic of David of Sasun, the god of fire is called Great Mher, whereas the sun-god is Mher Junior. This shows that among Armenians the fire-god was considered ancestral or had seniority and preeminence over the sun-god, just as Hyek, the fire-god, was ancestral to and greater than Ara, the sun-god. Similarly, in Urartian times, the fire-god Haldi was considered greater and more important than the sun-god Siwini.
We think that much before the Achaemenians, in the times of Mitani, the name Mihr was already known to the people, particularly to those living in the regions of Mitani or Armani-Subari (and later Arme-Subria) where Sasun is located, in the form of Mitra (or perhaps even as Mher). Otherwise, it would not have been so readily accepted by the people during the Achaemenian period or later.
That Great Mher represented Haldi is evidenced by the fact that he was called ‘the lion-like Mher’, reminding us of Haldi’s representations in Urartian wall paintings where he is pictured on a lion. Furthermore, Mher’s wife was called Armahan, a name which appears to be a distortion of Aruban(i), the name of Haldi’s wife.
It is known that the crow was a symbol of the sun and fire; “its feathers were black because they were charred by it”. Mher Junior had inherited Great Mher’s position; consequently, he had held, in his turn, the position of the great Urartian gods or preserved in him their memory. “According to a tradition, Mher, disillusioned with all the injustice in the world, had cloistered himself in a cave called Agravak’ar (Crow’s Stone) in Van.”
We already know that on a cliff called Mheri Dur (Mher’s Gate’) in Van, there is a large inscription written by Ishpuini and Menua, which lists the names of all the Urartian gods. All these show that at a time when it was even forgotten that these inscriptions represented actual writings, the Armenian tradition has preserved in Mher (particularly in the term Agriavak’ar) the memory of the great Urartian gods.
According to a legend, every year, at the feast of Ascention and the night of Vartavar (a water festival), when heaven and earth kiss each other, Mher comes out (from his cave) with a horse of fire, circles the heaven and the earth, and seeing that ‘the earth cannot yet support his weight’ returns to his seclusion. One day in the future, Mher shall come out from his hiding place to deliver ‘Armenian world’ from wicked forces and to establish a happy kingdom.
In the epic of David of Sasun, after the death of the king of Mser, his young and beautiful widow Ismil Khatun sends word to Great Mher in Sasun, bidding him to come and marry her and posses the land of Mser, even though Mher already has his own wife Armaghan.
This legend reminds us of a similar episode in the epic of Ara and Shamiram, where Shamiram, likewise, after the death of her husband Ninos, sends a herald to Ara in Armenia, inviting him to become her husband and to rule over Ninevah and the entire kingdom, even though Ara, too, has his own wife Nuard.
Thus, we see striking similarities not only between the two stories where Ismil Khatun and Shamiram, each in her turn, feel a passion for and make propositions to Mher and Ara, respectively, but also between the very names Ismil and Shamir(am) and also between the mane of Mher’s wife Armaghan and that of Haldi’s wife Aruban(i). In the section on Astuas, we had arrived at the Ara=Ardi=Aldi (Haldi) equation; now we can add another one to it: the Mher=Haldi mythological connection.
Many people today associate the six pointed star (Hexagram) with the Jewish Star of David (Magen David), as it is the modern symbol of Jewish identity and Judaism but its usage as a symbol of the Jewish community dates to the 17th century (officially), thus originally it is not a Jewish symbol.
Six-pointed Stars have been found all over the world.
The symbol was actually ‘given’ to rabbinic leaders in the 14th century by King Charles IV of Bohemia and formally adopted as ‘the Star of David’ in 1898 at the Second Zionist Congress in Switzerland.
It is possible that as a simple geometric shape, like for example the triangle, circle, or square, the Hexagram has been created by various peoples with no connection to one another but it is also possible that the knowledge of galaxy was spread from one direction.
Six-pointed stars have also been found in cosmological diagrams in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. The reasons behind this symbol’s common appearance in Indic religions and the West are unknown. One possibility is that they have a common origin. The other possibility is that artists and religious people from several cultures independently created the hexagram shape, which is a relatively simple geometric design.
Within Indic lore, the shape is generally understood to consist of two triangles—one pointed up and the other down—locked in harmonious embrace. The two components are called “Om” and the “Hrim” in Sanskrit, and symbolize man’s position between earth and sky. The downward triangle symbolizes Shatki, the sacred embodiment of femininity, and the upward triangle symbolizes Shiva, or Agni Tattva, representing the focused aspects of masculinity.
In Buddhism, some old versions of the Bardo Thodol, also known as the “Tibetan Book of the Dead“, contain a hexagram with a Swastika inside. It was made up by the publishers for this particular publication. In Tibetan, it is called the “origin of phenomenon” (chos-kyi ‘byung-gnas). It is especially connected with Vajrayogini, and forms the center part of Her mandala. In reality, it is in three dimensions, not two, although it may be portrayed either way.
Many Western occultists associate this central chakra with the central Sephirah, Tiphereth, in the kabbalistic tree of life. Christian kabbalists in particular associate this sephirah with love, healing, and knowledge.
The Shatkona is a symbol used in Hindu Yantra that represents the union of both the male and feminine form. More specifically it is supposed to represent Purusha (the supreme being), and Prakriti (mother nature, or causal matter). Often this is represented as Shiva – Shakti.
The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia declares that the SIX-POINTED STA, according to the Rosicrucian, was known to the ancient Egyptians. The SIX TRIANGLES is the Egyptian hieroglyphic for the “Land of the Spirits”. In the Astro-Mythology of the Egyptians, we find belief in the first man-god (Horus I) and his death and resurrection as Amsu. The six-pointed star was the first sign or hieroglyphic of Amsu. Amsu – the risen Horus – was the first man-god risen in spiritual form.
A Jewish scholar, Prof. Scholem, who was a researcher of Kabbalah and Jewish mysticism and one of the founders of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, conducted a 50-year study of the history of the Star of David. He published a short summary of the study in 1949, shortly after the symbol was chosen to appear on the new state’s national flag where he stated: “The Magen David is not a Jewish symbol, and therefore not the ‘symbol of Judaism’.
All in all it goes to the king of Solomon who was pagan, btw he fell deeply into idolatry because he was unduly influenced by his pagan wives.
The Encyclopædia Britannica identifies the six-pointed star as a ‘magical sign’ … a protection against evil spirits … It is only in Jewish sources that the interlaced triangles are called ‘Shield of David’, as non-Jewish sources call the symbol, the ‘Seal of Solomon’. What Solomon left behind was not only the division of the twelve tribes of Israel, but evidence of his idolatry. His foreign wives led him into the worship of the goddess Astoreth (Astgh in Armenian, which means a star and it is a common female name in Armenia (my addition)), otherwise called ‘Astarte’ (meaning ‘star’). The six-pointed star, or Hexagram, which came to be called the ‘Seal of Solomon’ when King Solomon took it upon himself, was the chief article of this pagan worship.” [Ibid., p. 21-22].
But who were the foreign wives of King Solomon and from where they came noone knows. Anyway, they were the ones who changed the wheel of history and they were the ones who brought pagan teachings to Babylon. And it was in Babylon where the meaning of hexagram got completely changed when the people of magic dipped their practices into it and when the knowledge of galaxy – a system of billions of stars gathered by mutual gravitation got used to rule the world.
There are sources which prove that the Armenians used the symbol 1000 years before the Egyptians.
The usage of hexagram in Armenian science, art, architecture, decorations and even for religious purposes has been extensive throughout the history.
The oldest known depiction of a six pointed star (dating back to the 3rd millennium BC.) was excavated in the Ashtarak burial mound in “Nerkin Naver” in Armenia. This was confirmed by a series of radiocarbon analysis of artifacts, conducted in laboratories in Germany and in the USA. The handle of a dagger depicts the worlds earliest decoration of a six-pointed star buried in a burial mound containing over 500 graves.
Armenians were skilled mathematicians, architects and craftsmen. In ancient times the Armenians had a refined knowledge of astronomy and were able to predict astral events. The observatory at Metsamor allowed ancestral Armenians to develop geometry to such a level they could measure distances, latitudes and longitudes, envision the world as round, and were predicting solar and lunar eclipses about 1000 years before the Egyptians began doing the same.
Armenian architecture is often geometrically sound with straight lines connecting columns and mathematical precision. The geometry of the Armenian architecture has stood the test of time by preserving many ancient buildings in a region dominated by war, poverty and natural disasters.
The fortress cities and temples that have been excavated in Armenia (some going back as far as 7000 years) show awareness of using geometry in constructing sacred buildings, using a complex system of squares, rectangles, circles, polygons with intersecting patterns.
Among many symbols Armenians used the six pointed star for architectural purposes.
Early Armenians believed the symbol had magical powers and incorporated it in architecture, astronomy and sacred art. Attesting to that there are numerous Armenian churches constructed in the shape of a six pointed star, they also use hexagrams to support the dome or simply as sacred decoration protecting the Church like magic charms.
Life on earth is linked to water. Our existence is dependent on water in many ways, and our whole civilization is built on the use of water. The importance of good quality drinking water has been established for years.
From the very early beginning of their existence the Armenians adopted an agrarian way of life. Sedentary agricultural life made it possible to construct villages, cities and eventually states, all of which were highly dependent on water. This created a brand new relation between the Armenian people and water. Armenian settlements have always been located near springs and other bodies of water. Ancient Armenians used to mark the places where they found water by putting huge Dragon stones.
The experience of humankind from the very beginning testifies to the importance and safety of groundwater as a water source, particularly springs and wells. Many rivers and springs were sacred, and endowed with beneficent virtues. The sources of the Euphrates and Tigris received and still receive worship. Sacred cities were built around the river Araxes and its tributaries. Even now there are many sacred springs with healing power, usually called “the springs of light”.
The springs of light were also associated with the dark waters of a pregnant woman. The Armenians believe that Nar was a pregnant woman, the mother from the Dark Waters of whose womb all creation has sprung. To be born in Armenian is “to come to the light world” (Լույս աշխարհ գալ (luis ashgharh gal)), which actually means to come to the world full of light from the mother’s dark womb (dark waters of the womb).
Here is an Armenian song dedicated to Nar.
If Nar is the one who gives birth Aya (Haya) is the one who teaches the way of wisdom and leads in the paths of uprightness: Այա (Aya) or Մեծմամ (Metsmam) is an Armenian word which means great grandmother, Տատ (Tat) is grandmother . Traditionally, grandmothers have been the beacon of light for the family unlike the Armenian men who, together with their women, have always been the protectors of the land and of the family against foreign enemy.
Aya is also Mother Earth who in time transformed into Haya. The letter H is very important for the Armenians, it’s the sound which comes from the lungs when you breathe in or breathe out. I think Aya became Haya with the first breathe, the transformation of the nature into a human being. The Armenians’ endonym is HAY, they call themselves the children of Haya (Aya).
Here is an old Armenian folk song “Aya” in Armenian Artsakh dialect:
Her symbol is AK(N). In Armenian language AK(N) can be translated as a wellspring (Ակնաղբյուր), eye and it’s connected with the source (աղբյուր, սկզբնաղբյուր, ակունք, սկզբնապատճառ, սկիզբ, ակնաղբյուր), headwaters (ակունք, սկիզբ, ջրի մակերեվույթ), outfall (ակունք, գետաբերան, սկիզբ), outflow (ակունք, արտահոսում, սկիզբ).
Water carries within itself the ancient story of life on Earth and in the cosmos! Water assisted in the birth of stars, accompanied the formation of the planets, helped form and cool the Earth so that Earth’s creativity could flourish. Water is our link to the planet’s ancient story, to its deep history, to the formation of the planetary web of life.
In its natural integrity, water is an integral part of ecosystems within which water has a mission: to nourish, to heal, and to cleanse, enabling other creatures to flourish.
The creation of the world is expressed in another Armenian tale: a fish named Leviathan arches around the earth. As Leviathan swims and tries to catch its tail, it wiggles, and causes the earthquakes. On Leviathan’s head there is a large diamond, which shines day and night. When he swims, the diamond shines in different places of the world.”
This actually tells us about the creation of the world, cosmic waters, a spiral galaxy of at least two hundred billion stars. That spiral, its coil,squiggle shows the eternity.
The Armenians call their land Harmania – the land of eternal squiggle (har in Armenian is eternal, man is squiggle), and their symbol is the sign of eternity, the well of cosmic waters which gives eternal life to our Earth and our duty is to live in accordance with what has been revealed and support Earth’s (thus, Mothers’) waters to truly fulfill their given mission and destiny of nurturing, cleansing, healing, rejuvenating, mothering, and enlivening the planetary community.
PS: Officially it is accepted that the origin of the word Stamboul goes to “eis tin polin”: they explain that people in the city referred to anything within its old walls as “eis tin polin” or simply “in the city in Greek” and this phrase became “Istanbul” in Armenian and later in Turkish. Such an explanation, first of all, aims to erase the older derivation and meaning. “Eistin pol” in Armenian means “There is water (a wellspring) here”. Obviously, the Armenians settled next to the wellspring and built a city there.
The research is mine (NMV)
According to the ancient Armenian beliefs, double headed eagles or snakes were the symbols of the bright planet Venus (Արուսյակ մոլորակ – Arusyak molorak) which, while appearing before the sun rises, was considered as լուսաբեր – lusaber (word by word translation is lu(y)s – the light, ber – bring)” and, while appearing before the sun sets, was considered as Գիշերավար (gisheravar, word by word translation is gisher – night, var is the coming here). Also, tillage is վար (var) in Armenian.
Officially the Arabic alphabet is a derivative of the Nabataean variation of the Aramaic alphabet, which descended from the Phoenician alphabet, which among others gave rise to the Hebrew alphabet and the Greek alphabet (and therefore the Cyrillic and Roman alphabets). The parent systems of the Nabataean alphabet are Egyptian hieroglyphs, Proto-Sinaitic alphabet, Phoenician alphabet, Aramaic alphabet, Syriac alphabet and so on.
What do we know about Nabataean tribes, who inhabited southern Syria and Jordan, Northern Arabia, and the Sinai Peninsula? Some sources mention that the Nabateans were (described by Diodorus) completely nomadic. Why should Diodorus describe them as nomads? They had the writing system, the land and traditions. Nabatean caravans (for most of the 4th century BC) maintained their freedom of movement unhampered by taxes. They received goods ultimately from South Arabia and transported them to Petra. From Petra they crossed the Palestinian Negev (Desert) to reach the port cities of Gaza or Rhinocolura in Egypt. These people were very well-known traders not the nomads like the Armenians of Crimea. There are a lot of researches on these people but there is no clear answer to who they were. My researches bring me to the sources which claim that those people developed the water collection system in the land of the people of South, nowdays Arabia (originally Haravia, the people of Harav were the people of South in Armenian language. So, the Armenians called all peoples and different tribes living in the South, the people of Harav which is now transformed into Arab (harav means south in Armenian)). This means that Nabatean people were not from South. The Nabataeans greatest accomplishment was probably their system of water management. They developed a system to collect rainwater using water channels, pipes, and underground cisterns. In addition, they developed very strong, waterproof cement, some of which is still in existence to this day.
They also developed sophisticated ceramic pipelines and reservoirs using gravity feeds (siphons or inverted siphons), that served the developing urban centers. Outside of the cities, dams closed off wadis to collect water during the rainy season, while stone circles or terraces retarded runoff from slopes and trapped valuable topsoil so that their irrigation lines could feed crops. They are considered to be the people of Osroene, also spelled Osrohene and Osrhoene ,known by the name of its capital city, Edessa, Armenian Edesia or Urha. The Syriac name of the city is “Orhay”, appears to correspond with the toponym Antiochia Kallirhoe “Antioch by the Kallirhoe” which is found on Edessan coins struck by Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175–164 BC). The same name appears also in Armenian as Ուռհա, transliterated Urha or Ourha, in Arabic it is الرُّهَا transliterated as Er Ruha or Ar-Ruha, commonly Urfa, and Riha in Kurdish, to the Frankish Crusaders Rohais. During Byzantine rule it was named Justinopolis. So, the Nabataeans were the people of Armenian Urfa. It was the Nabataeans who gave the writing system to the people of South. Why is that system called consonant? Everything is more simple than we think – that system was based on ancient Armenian notation, known as Khaz which means a scratch, khazel is to scratch (el and al are common verb-forming endings in Armenian).
Since ancient times, the Armenian nation has had its own system of notation, which is called “the system of the Armenian khaz.” It is a type of neumatic notation. The khaz system made it possible to put down monovocal melodies and sharakans, as they indicated the voice pitch, its duration, the strength of the voice, hue, the ornamentation of the melodic line, and other elements. The official sources dated the system to the 8th century but it’s not right. In 8th century the system was a bit simplified and reintroduced for the Christian sharakans (which are also based on pre-Christian Armenian songs). But the system of Khaz has ancient Armenian roots. However, even simplified it contained a great amount of different symbols and conventional signs, that’s why khaz notation was difficult to use on a practical basis, in respect of putting down the melody and reading it. This is why it was gradually put out of use, and in the 18th-19th centuries it was completely forgotten. Starting at the beginning of the first quarter of the 19th century, a new, simpler and easier-to-use system was introduced in Armenian music.
Luce ber (luce per in an Armenian dialect) means to bring the light” in Armenian. Accordingly, the Grimms’ and Verner’s laws show b-p-f changes in linguistics as the followings: Grimm’s law consists of three parts which form consecutive phases in the sense of a chain shift. The phases are usually constructed as follows:
Proto-Indo-European voiceless stops change into voiceless fricatives.
Proto-Indo-European voiced stops become voiceless stops.
Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirated stops become voiced stops or fricatives (as allophones).
This chain shift can be abstractly represented as:
bʰ > b > p > ɸ
dʰ > d > t > θ
gʰ > g > k > x
gʷʰ > gʷ > kʷ > xʷ
PIE *p *t *k *kʷ *s
Grimm *ɸ *θ *x *xʷ
Verner *ɸ *β *θ *ð *x *ɣ *xʷ *ɣʷ *s *z